The process in which
professional traders simultaneously buy and sell the same or equivalent
securities for a riskless profit. See also Risk Arbitrage
The price at which a seller is offering to sell an option or stock.
The receipt of an exercise notice by an option writer (seller) that obligates
him to sell (in the case of a call) or purchase (in the case of a put) the
underlying security at the specified strike price.
An option is at-the-money if the strike price of the option is equal to the
market price of the underlying security.
A protection procedure whereby the Options Clearing Corporation attempts to
protect the holder of an expiring in-the-money option by automatically
exercising the option on behalf of the holder.
To buy more of a security at a lower price, thereby reducing the holder's
average cost. (Average Up: to buy more at a higher price.)
An adjective describing an opinion or outlook that expects a decline in price,
either by the general market or by an underlying stock, or both. See also Bullish.
An option strategy that makes its maximum profit when the underlying stock
declines and has its maximum risk if the stock rises in price. The strategy can
be implemented with either puts or calls. In either case, an option with a
higher striking price is purchased and one with a lower striking price is sold,
both options generally having the same expiration date. See also Bull Spread.
The price at which a buyer is willing to buy an option or stock.
A type of option arbitrage in which both a bull spread and a bear spread are
established for a near-riskless position. One spread is established using put
options and the other is established using calls. The spread may both be debit
spreads (call bull spread vs. put bear spread) or both credit spreads ( call
bear spread vs. put bull spread). Break-Even Point--the stock price (or prices)
at which a particular strategy neither makes nor loses money. It generally
pertains to the result at the expiration date of the options involved in the
strategy. A "dynamic" break-even point is one that changes as time
Generally referring to an index, it indicates that the index is composed of a
sufficient number of stocks or of stocks in a variety of industry groups. See
Describing an opinion or outlook in which one expects a rise in price, either
by the general market or by an individual security. See also Bearish.
An option strategy that achieves its maximum potential if the underlying
security rises far enough, and has its maximum risk if the security falls far
enough. An option with a lower striking price is bought and one with a higher
striking price is sold, both generally having the same expiration date. Either
puts or calls may be used for the strategy. See also Bear Spread
An option strategy that has both limited risk and limited profit potential,
constructed by combining a bull spread and a bear spread. Three striking prices
are involved, with the lower two being utilized in one spread and the higher
two in the opposite spread. The strategy can be established with either puts or
calls; there are four different ways of combining options to construct the same
See also Covered Call.
An option strategy in which a short-term option is sold and a longer-term
option is bought, both having the same striking price. Either puts or calls may
Calendar Straddle or Combination
See Calendar Spread
An Option contract that gives the holder the right to buy the underlying
security at a specified price for a certain, fixed period of time. See also Put
A stock index which is computed by adding the capitalization (float times
price) of each individual stock in the index, and then dividing by the divisor.
The stocks with the largest market values have the heaviest weighting in the
index. See also Float, Divisor
A capped option is an option with an established profit cap or cap price. The
cap price is equal to the option's strike price plus a cap interval for a call
option or the strike price minus a cap interval for a put option. A capped
option is automatically exercised when the underlying security closes at or
above (for a call) or at or below (for a put) the Option's cap price.
The interest expense on a debit balance created by establishing a position.
Referring to an option or future that is settled in cash when exercised or
assigned. No physical entity, either stock or commodity, is received or
The process by which the terms of an option contract are fulfilled through the
payment or receipt in dollars of the amount by which the option is in-the-money
as opposed to delivering or receiving the underlying stock.
The Chicago Board Options Exchange; the first national exchange to trade listed
A term used to refer to all put and call contracts on the same underlying
Class of Options
Option contracts of the same type (call or put) and Style (American, European
or Capped) that cover the same underlying security.
A transaction in which the purchaser's intention is to reduce or eliminate a
short position in a given series of options.
A transaction in which the seller's intention is to reduce or eliminate a long
position in a given series of options
A trade that reduced an investor's position. Closing buy transactions reduce
short positions and closing sell transactions reduce long positions. See
also Opening Transaction
The loan value of marginable securities; generally used to finance the writing
of uncovered options.
Any position involving both put and call options that is not a straddle.
See Futures Contract
An order which can be executed only if another event occurs; i.e. "sell
Oct 45 call 7.25 with stock 52 or lower".
A riskless transaction in which the arbitrageur buys the underlying security,
buys a put, and sells a call. The options have the same terms. See also Reversal
See Synthetic Put
A security that is convertible into another security. Generally, a convertible
bond or convertible preferred stock is convertible into the underlying stock of
the same corporation. The rate at which the shares of the bond or preferred
stock are convertible into the common is called the conversion ratio.
To buy back as a closing transaction an option that was initially written.
A written option is considered to be covered if the writer also has an opposing
market position on a share-for-share basis in the underlying security. That is,
a short call is covered if the underlying stock is owned, and a short put is
covered (for margin purposes) if the underlying stock is also short in the
account. In addition, a short call is covered if the account is also long
another call on the same security, with a striking price equal to or less than
the striking price of the short call. A short put is covered if there is also a
long put in the account with a striking price equal to or greater than the
striking price of the short put.
An option strategy in which a call option is written against long stock on a
A strategy in which one sells call options while simultaneously owning an
equivalent position in the underlying security or strategy in which one sells
put options and simultaneously is short an equivalent position in the
Covered Put Write
A strategy in which one sells put options and simultaneously is short an equal
number of shares of the underlying security.
An option strategy in which one call and one put with the same strike price and
expiration are written against 100 shares of the underlying stock. In
actuality, this is not a "covered" strategy because asignment on the
short put would require purchase of stock on margin. This method is also known
as a covered combination.
Covered Straddle Write
The term used to describe the strategy in which an investor owns the underlying
security and also writes a straddle on that security. This is not really a
Money received in an account. A credit transaction is one in which the net sale
proceeds are larger than the net buy proceeds (cost), thereby bringing money
into the account. See also Debit.
The expiration dates applicable to various classes of options. There are three
cycles: January/April/July/October, February/May/August/November, and
An expense, or money paid out from an account. A debit transaction is one in
which the net cost is greater than the net sale proceeds. See also Credit
To take securities from an individual or firm and transfer them to another
individual or firm. A call writer who is assigned must deliver stock to the
call holder who exercised. A put holder who exercises must deliver stock to the
put writer who is assigned.
The process of satisfying an equity call assignment or an equity put exercise.
In either case, stock is delivered. For futures, the process of transferring
the physical commodity from the seller of the futures contract to the buyer.
Equivalent delivery refers to a situation in which delivery may be made in any
of various, similar entities that are equivalent to each other (for example,
Treasury bonds with differing coupon rates).
The amount by which an option's price will change for a one-point change in
price by the underlying entity. Call options have positive deltas, while put
options have negative deltas. Technically, the delta is an instantaneous
measure of the option's price change, so that the delta will be altered for
even fractional changes by the underlying entity. See also Hedge Ratio
A ratio spread that is established as a neutral position by utilizing the
deltas of the options involved. The neutral ratio is determined by dividing the
delta of the purchased option by the delta of the written option. See also Ratio Spread and Delta
Depository Trust Corporation (DTC)
A corporation that will hold securities for member institutions. Generally used
by option writers, the DTC facilitates and guarantees delivery of underlying
securities if assignment is made against securities held in DTC.
A financial security whose value is determined in part from the value and
characteristics of another security, the underlying security.
Any spread in which the purchased options have a longer maturity than do the
written options as well as having different striking prices. Typical types of
diagonal spreads are diagonal bull spreads, diagonal bear spreads, and diagonal
An option is trading at a discount if it is trading for less than its intrinsic
value. A future is trading at a discount if it is trading at a price less than
the cash price of its underlying index or commodity. See also Intrinsic Value and Parity
A riskless arbitrage in which a discount option is purchased and an opposite
position is taken in the underlying security. The arbitrageur may either buy a
call at a discount and simultaneously sell the underlying security (basic call
arbitrage) or may buy a put at a discount and simultaneously buy the underlying
security (basic put arbitrage). See also Discount.
Freedom given to the floor broker by an investor to use his judgment regarding
the execution of an order. Discretion can be limited, as in the case of a limit
order that gives the floor broker.125 or.25 point from the stated limit price
to use his judgment in executing the order. Discretion can also be unlimited,
as in the case of a market-not-held order. See Limit Order and Market Not Held Order
A mathematical quantity used to compute an index. It is initially an arbitrary
number that reduces the index value to a small, workable number. Thereafter,
the divisor is adjusted for stock splits (price-weighted index) or additional
issues of stock (capitalization-weighted index).
Generally used in connection with covered call writing, this is the cushion
against loss, in case of a price decline by the underlying security, that is
afforded by the written call option. Alternatively, it may be expressed in
terms of the distance the stock could fall before the total position becomes a
loss (an amount equal to the option premium), or it can be expressed as
percentage of the current stock price. See also Covered Call Write
For option strategies, describing analyses made during the course of changing
security prices and during the passage of time. This is as opposed to an
analysis made at expiration of the options used in the strategy. A dynamic
break-even point is one that changes as time passes. A dynamic follow-up action
is one that will change as either the security price changes or the option
price changes or time passes.
Early Exercise (assignment)
The exercise or assignment of an option contract before its expiration date.
A receipt issued by a bank in order to verify that a customer (who has written
a call) in fact owns the stock and therefore the call is considered covered.
A feature of an option that stipulates that the option may only be exercised at
its expiration. Therefore, there can be no early assignment with this type of
The process whereby a stock's price is reduced when a dividend is paid. The
ex-dividend date (ex-date) is the date on which the price reduction takes
place. Investors who own stock on the ex-date will receive the dividend, and
those who are short stock must pay out the dividend.
Options on shares of an individual common stock. See
also Non-Equity Option
An option contract that may be exercised only during a specified period of time
just prior to its expiration.
To implement the right under which the holder of an option is entitled to buy
(in the case of a call) or sell (in the case of a put) the underlying security.
The limit on the number of contracts which a holder can exercise in a fixed
period of time. Set by the appropriate option exchange, it is designed to
prevent an investor or group of investors from "cornering" the market
in a stock.
The price at which the option holder may buy or sell the underlying security,
as defined in the terms of his option contract. It is the price at which the
call holder may exercise to buy the underlying security or the put holder may
exercise to sell the underlying security. For listed options, the exercise
price is the same as the Striking Price. See also Exercise
Exercise settlement amount
The difference between the exercise price of the option and the exercise
settlement value of the index on the day an exercise notice is tendered,
multiplied by the index multiplier.
A rather complex mathematical analysis involving statistical distribution of
stock prices, it is the return which an investor might expect to make on an
investment if he were to make exactly the same investment many times throughout
An expiration cycle relates to the dates on which options on a particular
underlying security expire. A given option, other than LEAPS®, will be assigned
to one of three cycles, the January cycle, the February cycle or the March
The day on which an option contract becomes void. The expiration date for
listed stock options is the Saturday after the third Friday of the expiration
month. Holders of options should indicate their desire to exercise, if they
wish to do so, by this date. See also Expiration
Time and Automatic Exercise
The time of day by which all exercise notices must be received on the
expiration date. Technically, the expiration time is currently 5:00PM on the
expiration date, but public holders of option contracts must indicate their
desire to exercise no later than 5:30PM on the business day preceding the
expiration date. The times are Eastern Time. See also Expiration Date.
The process of providing a market for a security. Normally, this refers to bids
and offers made for large blocks of securities, such as those traded by
institutions. Listed options may be used to offset part of the risk assumed by
the trader who is facilitating the large block order. See also Hedge Ratio
Exchange traded equity or index options, where the investor can specify within
certain limits, the terms of the options, such as exercise price, expiration
date, exercise type, and settlement calculation.
The number of shares outstanding of a particular common stock.
A broker on the exchange floor who executes the orders of public customers or
other investors who do not have physical access to the trading area.
A method of analyzing the prospects of a security by observing accepted
accounting measures such as earnings, sales, assets, and so on.
See also Technical Analysis
A standardized contract calling for the delivery of a specified quantity of a
commodity at a specified date in the future.
The rate of change in an option's delta for a one-unit change in the price of
the underlying security. See also Delta
Good Until Canceled (GTC)
A conservative strategy used to limit investment loss by effecting a
transaction which offsets an existing position
The purchaser of an option.
An option strategy in which the options have the same striking price, but
different expiration dates.
A measure of the volatility of the underlying stock, it is determined by using
option prices currently existing in the market at the time rather than using
historical data on the price changes of the underlying stock. See also Volatility
Incremental Return Concept
A strategy of covered call writing in which the investor is striving to earn an
additional return from option writing against a stock position which he (she)
has targeted to sell -- possibly at substantially higher prices.
An option whose underlying entity is an index. Most index options are
An organization, probably very large, engaged in professional investing in
securities. Normally a bank, insurance company, or mutual fund.
A term describing any option that has intrinsic value. A call option is
in-the-money if the underlying security is higher than the striking price of
the call. A put option is in-the-money if the security is below the striking
price. See also Out-of-the-Money and Intrinsic
The value of an option if it were to expire immediately with the underlying
stock at its current price; the amount by which an option is in-the-money. For
call options, this is the difference between the stock price and the striking
price, if that difference is a positive number, or zero otherwise. For put
options it is the difference between the striking price and the stock price, if
that difference is positive, and zero otherwise. See also In-the-Money, Time Value Premium and Parity
Last Trading Day
The very last full day of open trading before an options expiration day,
usually the third Friday of the expiration month.
Long-term Equity Anticipation Securities, or LEAPS®, are long-term stock or
index options. LEAPS®, like all options, are available in two types, calls and
puts, with expiration dates up to three years in the future.
A risk-oriented method of establishing a two-sided position. Rather than
entering into a simultaneous transaction to establish the position (a spread,
for example), the trader first executes one side of the position, hoping to
execute the other side at a later time and a better price. The risk
materializes from the fact that a better price may never be available, and a
worse price must eventually be accepted.
Letter of Guarantee
A letter from a bank to a brokerage firm which states that a customer (who has
written a call option) does indeed own the underlying stock and the bank will
guarantee delivery if the call is assigned. Thus the call can be considered
covered. Not all brokerage firms accept letters of guarantee. Also: letter
issued to O.C.C. by member firms covering a guarantee of any trades made by one
of its customers, (a trader or broker on the exchange floor).
In investments, the attainment of greater percentage profit and risk potential.
A call holder has leverage with respect to a stock holder - the former will
have greater percentage profits and losses than the latter, for the same
movement in the underlying stock.
See Trading Limit
An order to buy or sell securities at a specified price (the limit). A limit
order may also be placed "with discretion". In this case, the floor
broker executing the order may use his (her) discretion to buy or sell at a set
amount beyond the limit if he (she) feels it is necessary to fill the order.
A put or call option that is traded on a national options exchange. Listed
options have fixed striking prices and expiration dates. See also Over-the-Counter Option
A trader on a futures exchange who buys and sells for his own account and may
sometimes also fill public orders.
A statistical distribution that is often applied to the movement of stock
prices. It is a convenient and logical distribution because it implies that
stock prices can theoretically rise forever but cannot fall below zero.
A position wherein an investor's interest in a particular series of options is
as a net holder (i.e., the number of contracts bought exceeds the number of
To buy a security by borrowing funds from a brokerage house. The margin
requirement - the maximum percentage of the investment that can be loaned by
the brokerage firm -- is set by the Federal Reserve Board.
The amount an uncovered (naked) option writer is required to deposit and
maintain to cover a position. The margin requirement is calculated daily.
An accounting process by which the price of securities held in account are
valued each day to reflect the last sale price or market quote if the last sale
is outside of the market quote. The result of this process is that the equity in
an account is updated daily to properly reflect current security prices.
A portfolio of common stocks whose performance is intended to simulate the
performance of a specific index. See Index
An exchange member whose function is to aid in the making of a market, by
making bids and offers for his account in the absence of public buy or sell
orders. Several market-makers are normally assigned to a particular security.
The market-maker system encompasses the market-makers, floor brokers, and order
book officials. See also Order Book Official and Specialist
Also a market order, but the investor is allowing the floor broker who is
executing the order to use his own discretion as to the exact timing of the
execution. If the floor broker expects a decline in price and he is holding a
"market not held buy order", he (she) may wait to buy, figuring that
a better price will soon be available. There is no guarantee that a
"market not held order" will be filled.
An order to buy or sell securities at the current market. The order will be
filled as long as there is a market for the security.
The simultaneous purchase of stock and the corresponding number of put options.
This is a limited risk strategy during the life of the puts because the stock
can be sold at the strike price of the puts.
Married Put Strategy
A put and stock are considered to be married if they are bought on the same
day, and the position is designated at that time as a hedge.
A mathematical formula designed to price an option as a function of certain
variables - generally stock price, striking price, volatility, time to
expiration, dividends to be paid, and the current risk-free interest rate. The
Black-Scholes model is one of the more widely used models.
See Uncovered Option
Generally referring to an index, it indicates that the index is composed of
only a few stocks, generally in a specific industry group. See also broad-based
Describing an opinion that is neither bearish nor bullish. Neutral option
strategies are generally designed to perform best if there is little or no net
change in the price of the underlying stock or index. See also Bearish and Bullish
An option whose underlying entity is not common stock; typically refers to
options on physical commodities and index options.
The time during which the buyer of a futures contract can be called upon to
accept delivery. Typically, the 3 to 6 weeks preceding the expiration of the
A transaction in which the seller's intention is to create or increase a short
position in a given series of options.
A trade which adds to the net position of an investor. An opening buy
transaction adds more long securities to the account. An opening sell
transaction adds more short securities. See also Closing Transaction
The number of outstanding option contracts in the exchange market or in a
particular class or series.
Option Pricing Curve
A graphical representation of the projected price of an option at a fixed point
in time. It reflects the amount of time value premium in the option for various
stock prices, as well. The curve is generated by using a mathematical model.
The delta (or hedge ratio) is the slope of a tangent line to the curve at a
fixed stock price. See also Delta, Hedge Ratio, and Model
The issuer of all listed option contracts that are trading on the national
The exchange employee in charge of keeping a book of public limit orders on
exchanges utilizing the "maker-maker" system, as opposed to the
"specialist system", of executing orders. See also Market-Maker and Specialist
A call option is out-of-the-money if the strike price is greater than the
market price of the underlying security. A put option is out-of-the-money if
the strike price is less than the market price of the underlying security.
An option traded off-exchange, as opposed to a listed stock option. The OTC
option has a direct link between buyer and seller, has no secondary market, and
has no standardization of striking prices and expiration dates. See also Listed Stock Option and Secondary Market.
Describing a security trading at a higher price than it logically should.
Normally associated with the results of option price predictions by
mathematical models. If an option is trading in the market for a higher price
than the model indicates, the option is said to be overvalued. See also Fair Value and Undervalued
Describing an in-the-money option trading for its intrinsic value; that is, an
option trading at parity with the underlying stock. Also used as a point of
reference - an option is sometimes said to be trading at a half-point over
parity or at a quarter-point under parity. An option trading under parity is a
discount option. See also Discount and Intrinsic Value
An option whose underlying security is a physical commodity that is not stock
or futures. The physical commodity itself (a currency, treasury debt issue,
commodity) - underlies that option contract. See also equity option, index option
As a noun, specific securities in an account or strategy. (A covered call
writing position might be long 1,000 XYZ and short 10 XYZ January 30 calls). As
a verb, to facilitate; to buy or sell - generally a block of securities -
thereby establishing a position. See also Facilitation and Strategy
The maximum number of put or call contracts on the same side of the market that
can be held in any one account or group of related accounts. Short puts and
long calls are on the same side of the market. Short calls and long puts are on
the same side of the market.
The price of an option contract, determined in the competitive marketplace,
which the buyer of the option pays to the option writer for the rights conveyed
by the option contract.
See Profit Graph
A graphical representation of the potential outcomes of a strategy. Dollars of
profit or loss are graphed on the vertical axis, and various stock prices are
graphed on the horizontal axis. Results may be depicted at any point in time,
although the graph usually depicts the results at expiration of the options involved
in the strategy.
The range within which a particular position makes a profit. Generally used in
reference to strategies that have two break-even points - an upside break-even
and a downside break-even. The price range between the two break-even points
would be the profit range. See also Break-Even
A table of results of a particular strategy at some point in time. This is
usually a tabular compilation of the data drawn on a profit graph. See also Profit Graph
A position that has limited risk. A protected short sale (short stock, long
call) has limited risk, as does a protected straddle write (short straddle,
long out-of-the-money combination). See also Combination and Straddle
Public Book (of orders)
The orders to buy or sell, entered by the public, that are generally away from
the current market. The order book official or specialist keeps the public
book. Market-Makers on the CBOE can see the highest bid and lowest offer at any
time. The specialist's book is closed (only he knows at what price and in what
quantity the nearest public orders are). See also Order Book Official, Market-Maker, and Specialist
An option contract that gives the holder the right to sell the underlying
security at a specified price for a certain fixed period of time. See also Call
Ratio Calendar Combination
A strategy consisting of a simultaneous position of a ratio calendar spread
using calls and a similar position using puts, where the striking price of the
calls is greater than the striking price of the puts.
Ratio Calendar Spread
Selling more near-term options than longer-term ones purchased, all with the
same strike; either puts or calls.
Constructed with either puts or calls, the strategy consists of buying a
certain amount of options and then selling a larger quantity of more
A strategy in which one has an unequal number of long securities and short
securities. Normally, it implies a preponderance of short options over either
long options or long stock.
Selling of call options in a ratio higher than 1 to 1 against the stock that is
A term in technical analysis indicating a price area higher than the current
stock price where an abundance of supply exists for the stock and therefore the
stock may have trouble rising through the price. See also Support
Return (on investment)
The percentage profit that one makes, or might make, on his investment.
Return if Exercised
The return that a covered call writer would make if the underlying stock were
A riskless arbitrage that involves selling the stock short, writing a put, and
buying a call. The options have the same terms. See also Conversion Arbitrage.
The expected change in an option's theoretical value for a 1 percent change in
interest rates. See also Theoretical
A form of arbitrage that has some risk associated with it. Commonly refers to
potential takeover situations where the arbitrageur buys the stock of the
company about to be taken over and sells the stock of the company that is
effecting the takeover.
Close out options at one strike and simultaneously open other options at a
Close-out options at a near-term expiration date and open options at a
longer-term expiration date.
A follow-up action in which the strategist closes options currently in the
position and opens other options with different terms, on the same underlying
stock. See also Roll Down, Roll Forward, and Roll Up.
Close out options at a lower strike and open options at a higher strike.
A market that provides for the purchase or sale of previously sold or bought
options through closing transactions.
All option contracts of the same class that also have the same unit of trade,
expiration date and strike price.
The official price at the end of a trading session. This price is established
by The Options Clearing Corporation and is used to determine changes in account
equity, margin requirements, and for other purposes. See also Mark-to-market
A position wherein a person's interest in a particular series of options is as
a net writer (i.e., the number of contracts sold exceeds the number of
An exchange member whose function it is to both make markets--buy and sell for
his own account in the absence of public orders--and to keep the book of public
orders. Most stock exchanges and some option exchanges utilize the specialist
system of trading.
An order to simultaneously transact two or more option trades. Typically, one
option would be bought while another would simultaneously be sold. Spread
orders may be limit orders, not held orders, or orders with discretion. They
cannot be stop orders, however.
Any option position having both long options and short options of the same type
on the same underlying security.
A measure of the volatility of a stock. It is a statistical quantity measuring
the magnitude of the daily price changes of that stock.
The return that an investor would make on a particular position if the
underlying stock were unchanged in price at the expiration of the options in
Similar to a stop order, the stop-limit order becomes a limit order, rather
than a market order, when the security trades at the price specified on the
stop. See also Stop Order
An order, placed away from the current market, that becomes a market order if
the security trades at the price specified on the stop order. Buy stop orders
are placed above the market while sell stop orders are placed below.
The purchase or sale of an equal number of puts and calls having the same
With respect to option investments, a preconceived, logical plan of position
selection and follow-up action.
The stated price per share for which the underlying security may be purchased
(in the case of a call) or sold (in the case of a put) by the option holder
upon exercise of the option contract.
Striking Price Interval
The distance between striking prices on a particular underlying security.
Normally, the interval is 2.50 points for stocks under $25, 5 points for stocks
selling over $25 per share, and 10 points (or greater) is acceptable for stocks
over $200 per share. There are, however, exceptions to this general guideline.
A requirement that any investing strategy fall within the financial means and
investment objectives of an investor.
Describing a strategy or trading philosophy in which the investor is operating
in accordance with his (her) financial means and investment objectives.
A term in technical analysis indicating a price area lower than the current
price of the stock, where demand is thought to exist. Thus a stock would stop
declining when it reached a support area. See also Resistance
A strategy equivalent in risk to purchasing a put option where an investor
sells stock short and buys a call.
An option strategy that is equivalent to the underlying stock. A long call and
a short put is synthetic long stock. A long put and a short call is synthetic
The method of predicting future stock price movements based on observation of
historical stock price movements.
The collective name denoting the expiration date, striking price, and
underlying stock of an option contract.
The price of an option, or a combination of options, as computed by a
A measure of the rate of change in an option's theoretical value for a one-unit
change in time to the option's expiration date. See Time Decay.
A term used to describe how the theoretical value of an option
"erodes" or reduces with the passage of time. Time decay is
especially quantified by Theta
See Calendar Spread
The portion of the option premium that is attributable to the amount of time
remaining until the expiration of the option contract. Time value is whatever
value the option has in addition to its intrinsic value.
The amount by which an option's total premium exceeds its intrinsic value.
Total Return Concept
A covered call writing strategy in which one views the potential profit of the
strategy as the sum of capital gains, dividends, and option premium income,
rather than viewing each one of the three separately.
The amount of difference between the performance of a specific portfolio of
stocks and a broad-based index with which they are being compared. See also market basket
An investor or professional who makes frequent purchases and sales.
The exchange-imposed maximum daily price change that a futures contract or
futures option contract can undergo.
(90/10 strategy) a method of investment in which one places approximately 90%
of his funds in risk-free, interest-bearing assets such as Treasury bills, and
buys options with the remainder of his assets
The classification of an option contract as either a put or a call.
A short call option position in which the writer does not own an equivalent
position in the underlying security represented by his option contracts.
A written option is considered to be uncovered if the investor does not have an
offsetting position in the underlying security. See also Covered
A short put option position in which the writer does not have a corresponding
short position in the underlying security or has not deposited, in a cash
account, cash or cash equivalents equal to the exercise value of the put.
The security subject to being purchased or sold upon exercise of the option
Describing a security that is trading at a lower price than it logically
should. Usually determined by the use of a mathematical model. See also Overvalued
and Fair Value
Unit of Trading
The minimum quantity or amount allowed when trading a security. The normal
minimum for common stock is 1 round lot or 100 shares. The normal minimum for
options is one contract (which normally covers 100 shares of stock).
Variable Ratio Write
An option strategy in which the investor owns 100 shares of the underlying
security and writes two call options against it, each option having a different
A measure of the rate of change in an option's theoretical value for a one-unit
change in the volatility assumption.
(1)Most commonly used to describe the purchase of one option and sale of
another where both are of the same type and same expiration, but have different
strike prices. (2)It is also used to describe a delta-neutral spread in which
more options are sold than are purchased.
A measure of the fluctuation in the market price of the underlying security.
Mathematically, volatility is the annualized standard deviation of returns.
To sell an option. The investor who sells is called the writer.
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